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UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
þ
  
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE
SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
  
 
 
  
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018
  
 
 
  
or
  
 
¨
  
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE
SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
  
 
For the transition period from          to         
Commission file number: 1-35229
Xylem Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Indiana
 
45-2080495
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or
organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
 
 
1 International Drive, Rye Brook, NY 10573
(address of principal executive offices and zip code)
(914) 323-5700
(Registrant's telephone number, including area code)
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
 
 
Title of each class
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share
 
New York Stock Exchange
2.250% Senior Notes due 2023
 
New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  þ  No  ¨
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.      Yes  ¨  No  þ
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes  þ  No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).  Yes  þ  No  ¨
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.    þ
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large Accelerated Filer  þ        Accelerated Filer  ¨        Non-Accelerated Filer  ¨        Smaller reporting company  ¨ Emerging growth company ¨
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).  Yes  ¨  No  þ
The aggregate market value of the common stock of the registrant held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 30, 2018 was approximately $12.0 billion. As of February 15, 2019, there were 179,552,698 outstanding shares of the registrant’s common stock, par value $0.01 per share.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement for its 2019 Annual Meeting of Shareowners, to be held in May 2019, are incorporated by reference into Part II and Part III of this Report.



Xylem Inc.
ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018
Table of Contents
 
 
 
 
ITEM
PAGE
PART I
 
 
 
 
1
1A.
1B.
2
3
4
*
 
 
 
PART II
 
 
 
 
5
6
7
7A.
8
9
9A.
9B.
 
 
PART III
 
 
 
 
10
11
12
13
14
 
 
PART IV
 
 
 
 
15
16
 
 
*
Included pursuant to Instruction 3 of Item 401(b) of Regulation S-K.

2


PART I
The following discussion should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements, including the notes, included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K (this "Report"). Except as otherwise indicated or unless the context otherwise requires, “Xylem,” “we,” “us,” “our” and “the Company” refer to Xylem Inc. and its subsidiaries. References in the consolidated financial statements to "ITT" or the "former parent" refer to ITT Corporation (now ITT LLC) and its consolidated subsidiaries (other than Xylem Inc.) as of the applicable periods.
Forward-Looking Statements
This Report contains information that may constitute “forward-looking statements" within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements by their nature address matters that are, to different degrees, uncertain. Generally, the words “anticipate,” “estimate,” “expect,” “project,” “intend,” “plan,” “forecast,” “believe,” “target,” “will,” “could,” “would,” “should” and similar expressions identify forward-looking statements. However, the absence of these words or similar expressions does not mean that a statement is not forward-looking. These forward-looking statements include any statements that are not historical in nature, including any statements about the capitalization of the Company, the Company’s restructuring and realignment, future strategic plans and other statements that describe the Company’s business strategy, outlook, objectives, plans, intentions or goals. All statements that address operating or financial performance, events or developments that we expect or anticipate will occur in the future - including statements relating to orders, revenues, operating margins and earnings per share growth, and statements expressing general views about future operating results - are forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied in, or reasonably inferred from, such forward-looking statements.

Factors that could cause results to differ materially from those anticipated include: overall economic and business conditions, political and other risks associated with our international operations, including military actions, economic sanctions or trade barriers including tariffs and embargoes that could affect customer markets, and non-compliance with laws, including foreign corrupt practice laws, export and import laws and competition laws; potential for unexpected cancellations or delays of customer orders in our reported backlog; our exposure to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates;  competition and pricing pressures in the markets we serve; the strength of housing and related markets; weather conditions; ability to retain and attract talent and key members of management; our relationship with and the performance of our channel partners; our ability to successfully identify, complete and integrate acquisitions; our ability to borrow or to refinance our existing indebtedness and availability of liquidity sufficient to meet our needs; changes in the value of goodwill or intangible assets; risks relating to product defects, product liability and recalls; claims or investigations by governmental or regulatory bodies; security breaches or other disruptions of our information technology systems; litigation and contingent liabilities; and other factors set forth under “Item 1A. Risk Factors” and in subsequent filings we make with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”).

All forward-looking statements made herein are based on information currently available to the Company as of the date of this Report.  The Company undertakes no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law.

ITEM 1.        BUSINESS
Business Overview
Xylem, with 2018 revenue of $5.2 billion and approximately 17,000 employees, is a leading global water technology company. We design, manufacture and service highly engineered products and solutions ranging across a wide variety of critical applications primarily in the water sector, but also in electric and gas. Our broad portfolio of products, services and solutions addresses customer needs across the water cycle, from the delivery, measurement and use of drinking water to the collection, test and treatment of wastewater to the return of water to the environment.
We have differentiated market positions in core application areas including transport, treatment, test, smart metering, smart infrastructure analytics, digital solutions, condition assessment and leak detection, building services and industrial processing. Setting us apart is a unique set of global assets that include:


3


Fortress brands with leading positions, some of which have been in use for more than 100 years
Far-reaching global distribution networks consisting of direct sales forces and independent channel partners that collectively serve a diverse customer base in approximately 150 countries
A substantial installed base that provides for steady recurring revenue
A strong financial position and cash generation profile that enables us to fund strategic organic and inorganic growth initiatives, and consistently return capital to shareholders

Key pillars of our long-term strategy include: (1) accelerate profitable growth; (2) increase profitability by driving continuous improvement initiatives; (3) leadership and talent development; (4) focus on execution and accountability; and (5) create social value in everything we do.
Company History and Certain Relationships
On October 31, 2011 (the "Distribution Date"), ITT Corporation ("ITT") completed the Spin-off (the “Spin-off”) of Xylem, formerly ITT’s water equipment and services businesses. The Spin-off was completed pursuant to a Distribution Agreement, dated as of October 25, 2011 (the “Distribution Agreement”), among ITT (now ITT LLC), Exelis Inc., acquired by Harris Inc. on May 29, 2015 (“Exelis”), and Xylem.
Our Industry
Our planet faces serious water challenges. Less than 1% of the total water available on earth is fresh water, and these supplies are under threat due to factors such as the draining of aquifers, increased pollution and the effects of climate change. Demand for fresh water is rising rapidly due to population growth, industrial expansion, and increased agricultural development, with consumption estimated to double every 20 years. By 2025, more than 30% of the world’s population is expected to live in areas without adequate water supply. Even in developed countries with sufficient clean water supply, existing water supply infrastructure is aging and inadequately funded. In the United States, deteriorating pipe systems, theft or inaccurate meters result in approximately one out of every six gallons of water being lost between the treatment plant and the end customer. This problem of "non-revenue" water is a major financial challenge of many utilities globally, especially in developing markets where non-revenue water can represent 15% to 60% or more of net water produced. These and other challenges create opportunities for growth in the global water industry. We estimate the total addressable market size to be approximately $550 billion.

We compete in areas that are pivotal to improving water productivity, water quality and resilience. Water productivity refers to the more efficient delivery and use of clean water. Water quality refers to the efficient and effective management of wastewater. Resilience refers to the management of water-related risks and the resilience of water infrastructure. Our customers often face all three of these challenges, ranging from inefficient and aging water distribution networks (which require improvements in “water productivity”); energy-intensive or unreliable wastewater management systems (which require improvements in “water quality”); or exposure to natural disasters such as floods or droughts (which require improvements in “resilience”). Additionally, through the acquisition of Sensus, we also provide solutions to enhance communications and efficiency, improve safety and conserve resources to customers in the water, electric, gas, and lighting sectors. Delivering value in these areas creates significant opportunity for the Company. We estimate our total served market size to be approximately $57 billion.
The Global Water Industry Value Chain
The water industry value chain includes Equipment and Services companies, like Xylem, which address the unique challenges and demands of a diverse customer base. This customer base includes water and wastewater utilities that supply and treat clean water or transport and treat wastewater or storm water through an infrastructure network, and engineering, procurement and construction or (EPC) firms, which work with utilities to design and build water and wastewater infrastructure networks, as depicted below. Utilities and EPC customers require products, solutions, services, technology and application expertise from their Equipment and Services providers to address trends such as rising pollution, stricter regulations, increasing operational costs and the increased outsourcing of process knowledge. In addition to utilities and EPC customers, Equipment and Service providers also provide distinct technologies to a wide array of entities, including farms, mines, power plants, industrial facilities and residential and commercial customers seeking to address similar trends.

4


Water Industry Supply Chain
a10kdiagrama03.jpg


Business Strategy
Our strategy is to enhance shareholder value by providing distinctive solutions for our customers' most important water productivity, quality and resilience challenges, enabling us to grow revenue, organically and through strategic acquisitions, as we streamline our cost structure. Key elements of our strategy are summarized below:
Accelerate Profitable Growth. To accelerate growth, we continue to focus on several priorities:
Emerging Markets - We seek to accelerate our growth in priority emerging markets through increased focus on product localization and channel development.
Innovation & Technology - We seek to enhance our innovation efforts with increased focus on smart, digitally enabled technologies and innovation that can significantly improve customers’ productivity, quality and resilience.
Commercial Leadership - We are strengthening our capabilities by simplifying our commercial processes and supporting information technology systems.
Mergers and Acquisitions - We continue to evaluate and, where appropriate, will act upon attractive acquisition candidates to accelerate our growth, including into adjacent markets.
Drive Continuous Improvement. We seek to embed continuous improvement into our culture and simplify our organization to make the Company more agile, more profitable and create room to reinvest in growth. To accomplish this, we will continue to strengthen our lean six sigma and global procurement capabilities, while also continuing to optimize our cost structure through business simplification, which aims to eliminate structural, process and product complexity.
Leadership and Talent Development. We seek to continue to invest in attracting, developing and retaining world-class talent with an increased focus on leadership and talent development programs. We will continue to align individual performance with the objectives of the Company and its shareholders.
Focus on Execution and Accountability. We seek to ensure the impact of these strategic focus areas by holding our people accountable and streamlining our performance management and goal deployment systems.
Create social value in everything we do. We seek to have a positive impact on communities through the combination of corporate social responsibility and employee, customer, and stakeholder engagement.

5


Business Segments, Distribution and Competitive Landscape
We have three reportable business segments that are aligned around the critical market applications they provide: Water Infrastructure, Applied Water, and Measurement & Control Solutions. See Note 21, “Segment and Geographic Data,” in our consolidated financial statements for financial information about segments and geographic areas.
The table and descriptions below provide an overview of our business segments.
 
 
Market
Applications
 
2018 Revenue
(in millions)
 
%
Revenue
 
Major Products
 
Primary Brands
Water
Infrastructure
 
Transport
 
$
1,779

 
82
%
 
 
•   Water and wastewater pumps
•   Filtration, disinfection and biological treatment equipment
• Mobile dewatering equipment

 
 
•   Flygt
•   Godwin
•   Leopold
•   Sanitaire
•   Wedeco


 
Treatment
 
397

 
18
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
$
2,176

 
100
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Applied
Water
 
Industrial Water
 
$
706

 
46
%
 
 
•   Pumps
•   Valves
•   Heat exchangers
•   Controls
•   Dispensing
equipment systems
 
 
   •   A-C Fire Pump
•   Bell & Gossett
•   Flojet
•   Goulds Water Technology
• Jabsco
•   Lowara
•   Standard
     Xchange




 
Commercial Building Services
 
596

 
39
%
 
 
 
Residential Building Services
 
232

 
15
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
$
1,534

 
100
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Measurement & Control Solutions
 
Water
 
$
692

 
46
%
 

•   Smart meters
•   Networked communication devices
•  Data analytics
•   Test equipment
•   Controls
•   Sensor devices
•   Software & managed services
• Critical infrastructure services




 

• EmNet
• Pure
•   Sensus
•  Smith Blair
• Valor Water
•   Visenti
•   WTW
•   YSI





 
Test
 
344

 
23
%
 
 
 
Gas
 
195

 
13
%
 
 
 
 
Electric
 
143

 
10
%
 
 
 
 
Software as a Service/Other
 
123

 
8
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
$
1,497

 
100
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Water Infrastructure
Our Water Infrastructure segment supports the process that collects water from a source, treats it and distributes it to users, and then treats and returns the wastewater responsibly to the environment through two closely linked applications: Transport and Treatment. The Transport application also includes sales and rental of specialty dewatering pumps and related equipment and services, which provide the safe removal or draining of groundwater and surface water from riverbeds and construction sites or other industrial sites and bypass pumping for the repair of aging utility infrastructure, as well as emergency water transport and removal during severe weather events.
The customer base consists of two primary end markets: utility and industrial. The utility market includes public, private and public-private entities that support water, wastewater and storm water networks. The industrial market includes customers who require similar water and wastewater infrastructure networks to support various industrial operations.
Water Infrastructure provides the majority of its sales through direct channels with remaining sales through indirect channels and service capabilities. Both utility and industrial facility customers increasingly require our teams’ global but locally proficient expertise to use our equipment in their specific applications. Several trends are increasing demand for this application expertise: (i) the increase in both the type and amount of contaminants

6


found in the water supply, (ii) increasing environmental regulations, (iii) the need to increase system efficiencies to optimize energy and other operational costs, (iv) the retirement of a largely aging water industry workforce that has not been systematically replaced at utilities and other end-user customers, and (v) the build-out of water infrastructure in the emerging markets. We estimate our served market size in this sector to be approximately $17 billion.
Given the highly fragmented nature of the water industry, the Water Infrastructure segment competes with a large number of businesses. We differentiate ourselves in the market by focusing on product and service performance, quality and reliability, innovation, speed to market with new or disruptive technologies, application expertise, brand reputation, energy efficiency, product life-cycle cost, timeliness of delivery, proximity of service centers, effectiveness of our distribution channels and price. In the sale or rental of products and provision of services, we benefit from our large installed base, which requires maintenance, repair and replacement parts due to the critical application and nature of the products and the conditions under which they operate. Timeliness of delivery, quality and the proximity of service centers are important customer considerations when selecting a provider for after-market products and services as well as equipment rentals. In geographic regions where we are locally positioned to provide a quick response, customers have historically relied on us, rather than our competitors, for after-market products relating to our highly engineered and customized solutions. Our key competitors within the Water Infrastructure segment include KSB Inc., Sulzer Ltd., Evoqua Water Technologies, United Rentals, Danaher Corporation and Grundfos.
Applied Water
Applied Water encompasses the uses of water and serves a diverse set of end markets including: residential, commercial and industrial. Residential consumers represent the end users in the residential market, while owners and managers of properties such as apartment buildings, retail stores, institutional buildings, restaurants, schools, hospitals and hotels are examples of end users in the commercial market. The industrial market includes OEMs, exploration and production firms, and developers and managers of industrial facilities, such as electrical power generators, chemical manufacturers, machine shops, clothing manufacturers, beverage dispensing and food processing firms and car washes.
In the Applied Water segment, end markets vary widely and, as a result, specialized distribution partners are often preferred. As such, the Applied Water segment provides the majority of its sales through strong indirect channels with the remaining sales going through our global direct sales channels. We have long-standing relationships with many of the leading independent distributors in the markets we serve and we provide incentives to distributors, such as specialized loyalty and training programs.
We estimate our served market size in this sector to be approximately $19 billion. Population growth, urbanization and regulatory requirements are macro growth drivers of these markets, driving the need for housing, food, community services and retail goods within growing city centers.

Competition in the Applied Water segment focuses on brand equity, application expertise, product delivery and performance and energy efficiency, quality and price. We compete by offering a wide variety of innovative and high-quality products, coupled with world-class application expertise. We believe our distribution through well-established channels and our reputation for quality significantly enhance our market position. Our ability to deliver innovative product offerings has enabled us to compete effectively, to cultivate and maintain customer relationships and to serve and expand into many niche and new markets. Our key competitors within the Applied Water segment include Grundfos, Wilo SE, Pentair plc and Franklin Electric Co., Inc.
Measurement & Control Solutions
Measurement & Control Solutions develops advanced technology solutions that enable intelligent use and conservation of critical water and energy resources. The segment delivers communications, smart metering, measurement and control technologies and critical infrastructure technologies that allow customers to more effectively use their distribution networks for the delivery, monitoring and control of critical resources such as water, electricity and natural gas. We also provide analytical instrumentation used to measure water quality, flow and level in clean water, wastewater, surface water and coastal environments. Additionally, we offer software and services including cloud-based analytics, remote monitoring and data management, leak detection, condition assessment, asset management and pressure monitoring solutions. We also offer smart lighting solutions that improve efficiency and public safety efforts across communities.
At the heart of our leading technologies is automation, data management and decision support. Communications networks automate and optimize meter reading, monitor flow rates and detect and enable rapid response to

7


changing and unsafe conditions. In short, they provide insight into operations and enable our customers to manage the entire scope of their operations remotely through their networks. At the center of our offering is the FlexNet communication network, which provides a common communications platform and infrastructure for essential services. This two-way communication technology remotely connects a wide variety of smart points in a given network with protocols, frequently on FCC licensed spectrum in the U.S., that enable reliable, resilient and secure transmissions. These technologies allow our customers to remotely and continuously monitor infrastructure, prioritize and manage maintenance and use data to optimize all aspects of their networks. Our advanced infrastructure analytics complement these offerings with intelligent solutions that help utility decision-makers manage their networks more effectively in real time.
The majority of our sales in the U.S. is conducted through strong, long-standing relationships with leading distributors and dedicated channel partners for water, gas and electric markets. Internationally, direct sales are often made in markets without established distribution channels; however, some distribution channels are used in more developed markets. A more direct sales approach, with key account management, is employed for large utilities and government programs.
We estimate our served market size in this sector to be approximately $21 billion. Macro growth drivers include increasing regulation, aging infrastructure and worldwide movement towards smart grid implementation. Water scarcity and conservation, as well as the need to prevent revenue loss (via inaccurate meter readings, leaks or theft) are among the drivers of smart meter and leak detection technologies.
Our Sensus-branded meters are well positioned in the smart metering sector, the fastest growing sector of the global meter industry. We set ourselves apart in the industry by focusing on our communication network, innovation, new product development and service offerings that deliver tangible savings of non-revenue water through improved meter accuracy, reduced theft and identification of leaks. Pure Technologies’ equipment and services are also well positioned in the leak detection sector which is attracting considerable attention as aging infrastructure and increased regulatory scrutiny exert pressure on operating budgets. Our key competitors within the Measurement & Control Solutions segment include Itron, Badger Meter, Landis+Gyr, Neptune (Roper), Elster (Honeywell), Mueller Water Products, Danaher Corporation, Hach and Teledyne.
Geographic Profile
The table below illustrates the annual revenue and percentage of revenue by geographic area for each of the three years ended December 31.
 
Revenue
(in millions)
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
$ Amount
 
% of Total
 
$ Amount
 
% of Total
 
$ Amount
 
% of Total
United States
$
2,424

 
47
%
 
$
2,161

 
46
%
 
$
1,574

 
42
%
Europe
1,449

 
28
%
 
1,335

 
28
%
 
1,195

 
31
%
Asia Pacific
660

 
13
%
 
611

 
13
%
 
518

 
14
%
Other
674

 
12
%
 
600

 
13
%
 
484

 
13
%
Total
$
5,207

 
 
 
$
4,707

 
 
 
$
3,771

 
 
In addition to the traditional markets of the United States and western Europe, opportunities in emerging markets within Asia Pacific, eastern Europe, Latin America and other countries are growing. Revenue derived from emerging markets comprised approximately 20% of our revenue in each of the last three years.
Supply and Seasonality
We have a global manufacturing footprint, with production facilities in Europe, North America, Latin America, and Asia. Our inventory management and distribution practices seek to minimize inventory holding periods by striving to take delivery of the inventory and manufacturing as close as possible to the sale or distribution of products to our customers. All of our businesses require various parts and raw materials, of which the availability and prices may fluctuate. Parts and raw materials commonly used in our products include motors, fabricated parts, castings, bearings, seals, batteries, PCBs and electronic components as well as steel, brass, nickel, copper, aluminum and plastics. While we may recover some cost increases through operational improvements, we are still exposed to some pricing risk, including increased pricing risk due to duty and tariff assessments by the United States on foreign imports. We attempt to control costs through fixed-priced contracts with suppliers and various other programs, such as our global procurement initiative.

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Our business relies on third-party suppliers, contract manufacturing and commodity markets to secure raw materials, parts and components used in our products. We typically acquire materials and components through a combination of blanket and scheduled purchase orders to support our materials requirements. For many of our products we have existing alternate sources of supply, or such sources may be readily available.
We may experience price volatility or supply constraints for materials that are not available from multiple sources. From time to time, we acquire certain inventory in anticipation of supply constraints or enter into longer-term pricing commitments with suppliers to improve the priority, price and availability of supply. There have been no raw material shortages in the past several years that have had a significant adverse impact on our business as a whole.
Our business segments experience a modest level of seasonality in their business. This seasonality is dependent on factors such as capital spending of customers as well as weather conditions, including heavy flooding, droughts and fluctuations in temperatures, all of which can positively or negatively impact portions of our business.
Customers
Our business is not dependent on any single customer or a few customers the loss of which would have a material adverse effect on our Company. No individual customer accounted for more than 10% of our consolidated 2018, 2017 or 2016 revenue.
Backlog
Backlog includes orders on hand as well as contractual customer agreements at the end of the period. Delivery schedules vary from customer to customer based on their requirements. Annual or multi-year contracts are subject to rescheduling and cancellation by customers due to the long-term nature of the contracts. As such, beginning total backlog, plus orders, minus revenues, will not equal ending total backlog due to contract adjustments, foreign currency fluctuations, and other factors. Typically, large projects require longer lead production cycles and deployment schedules and delays can occur from time to time. Total backlog was $1,689 million at December 31, 2018 and $1,513 million at December 31, 2017. We anticipate that approximately 65% of the backlog at December 31, 2018 will be recognized as revenue during 2019.
Research and Development
Research and development (“R&D”) is a key foundation of our growth strategy and we focus on the design and development of products and application know-how that anticipate customer needs and emerging trends. Our engineers are involved in new product development as well as improvement of existing products to increase customer value. Our businesses invest substantial resources into R&D. We anticipate we will continue to develop and invest in our R&D capabilities to promote a steady flow of innovative, high-quality and reliable products and integrated solutions to further strengthen our position in the markets we serve. In addition to investments made in software development, which were capitalized, we incurred $189 million, $181 million, and $110 million as a result of R&D investment spending in 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively.
We have R&D and product development capabilities around the world. R&D activities are initially conducted in our technology centers, located in conjunction with some of our major manufacturing facilities to ensure an efficient and robust development process. We have several global technical centers and local development teams around the world where we are supporting global needs and accelerating the customization of our products and solutions to address local needs. In some cases, our R&D activities are conducted at our piloting and testing facilities and at strategic customer sites. These piloting and testing facilities enable us to serve our strategic markets globally. As part of expanding our bandwidth and to increase our access to technology, we have built innovation eco-system partnerships with academic institutions, start-up accelerators and venture capitalist organizations.
Capitalized Software
We capitalize software developed for sale to external customers, which is included within "Other intangible assets, net" on our Consolidated Balance Sheets. As of December 31, 2018 and 2017 we had net capitalized software for sale to external customers of $128 million and $89 million, respectively.
Intellectual Property
We generally seek patent protection for those inventions and improvements that we believe will improve our competitive position. We believe that our patents and applications are important for maintaining the competitive differentiation of our products and improving our return on research and development investments. While we own, control or license a significant number of patents, trade secrets, proprietary information, trademarks, trade names,

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copyrights and other intellectual property rights which, in the aggregate, are of material importance to our business, management believes that our business, as a whole, as well as each of our core business segments, is not materially dependent on any one intellectual property right or related group of such rights.
Patents, patent applications and license agreements expire or terminate over time by operation of law, in accordance with their terms or otherwise. As the portfolio of our patents, patent applications and license agreements has evolved over time, we do not expect the expiration of any specific patent to have a material adverse effect on our financial position or results of operations.
Environmental Matters and Regulation
Our global operations are subject to various laws and regulations governing the environment, including the discharge of pollutants and the management and disposal of hazardous substances. While environmental laws and regulations are subject to change, such changes can be difficult to predict reliably and the timing of potential changes is uncertain. Management does not believe, based on current circumstances, that compliance costs pursuant to such regulations will have a material adverse effect on our financial position or results of operations. However, the effect of future legislative or regulatory changes could be material to our financial condition or results of operations.
We continue to be dedicated to environmental and sustainability programs to minimize the use of natural resources, and reduce the utilization and generation of hazardous materials from our processes and to remediate identified environmental concerns. As to the latter, we are currently engaged in site investigations and remediation activities to address environmental cleanup from past operations at current and former manufacturing facilities.  We do not anticipate these liabilities will have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial position or results of operations.  At December 31, 2018, we had estimated and accrued $4 million related to environmental matters.
Environmental Sustainability
At Xylem, sustainability is at the very center of who we are and what we do. As a leading global water technology company, we address one of the world’s most urgent sustainability challenges on a daily basis - responsible stewardship of our shared water resources. Technology is playing an increasingly important role in helping the world solve water issues. We have a long history of innovation, but today, we are focusing more than ever on the powerful capabilities of smart technology, integrated management and big data. These solutions will allow us to transport, treat, test and use water smarter and more sustainably than in the past, and enable our customers to realize greater water and energy efficiencies. Our link to global water and environmental challenges informs how we think about sustainability and drives us to become a more sustainable company.         

Our approach to climate-related issues is informed by Xylem’s Climate Change Policy, which defines our climate change approach across product development, operations, employees and external engagement. For example, in the past two years, we have completed several acquisitions to build out our Measurement & Control Solutions portfolio around systems intelligence, bringing best-in-class advanced metering infrastructure, advanced data analytics and software development capabilities to our portfolio. These technologies have enhanced our ability to help customers facing water scarcity, storm water overflows and other climate-related issues. We are also focused on increasing our capabilities in the areas of advanced industrial water treatment and industrial water services. We are committed to sustainability through our own operations as well, as we are reducing our environmental footprint by decreasing our water intensity, greenhouse gas emissions and waste sent to landfills.
Employees
As of December 31, 2018, Xylem had approximately 17,000 employees worldwide.  We have approximately 5,900 employees in the United States, of whom approximately 16% are represented by labor unions. In certain foreign countries, our employees are represented by work councils.  We believe that our facilities are in favorable labor markets with ready access to adequate numbers of workers and believe our relations with our employees are good.
Available Information
We are required to file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC.  Our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, proxy statements and amendments to those reports are available free of charge on our website www.xylem.com as soon as reasonably practicable after such reports are electronically filed with or furnished to the SEC. The information on our website is not, and shall not be deemed to be, a part hereof or incorporated into this or any of our other filings with the SEC.
In addition, the public may read or copy any materials filed with the SEC, free of charge, at www.sec.gov.

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ITEM 1A.    RISK FACTORS
In evaluating our business, each of the following risks should be carefully considered, along with all of the other information in this Report and in our other filings with the SEC. Should any of these risks and uncertainties develop into actual events, our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. The risks and uncertainties described below are those that we have identified as material but are not the only risks and uncertainties we face and therefore may not be exhaustive. We operate in a continually changing business, economic and geopolitical environment and as a result new risk factors may emerge from time to time. We can neither predict with certainty these new risk factors nor assess the extent to which any new factor, or combination of factors, may adversely impact our business or results of operations.
Risks Related to Operational and External Factors
Failure to compete successfully in our markets and disruptive technologies could adversely affect our business.
We offer our products and services in competitive markets. We believe the principal points of competition in our markets are product and service performance, quality and reliability, innovation, speed to market with new or disruptive technologies, application expertise, brand reputation, energy efficiency, product life cycle cost, timeliness of delivery, proximity of service centers, effectiveness of our distribution channels and price. Maintaining and improving our competitive position will require successful management of these factors, including continued investment by us in manufacturing, technology and innovation, research and development, engineering, marketing, customer service and support, and our distribution networks. Our future growth rate depends upon a number of factors, including our ability to (i) identify emerging technological trends in our target end-markets, (ii) develop and maintain competitive products, services and business models and defend our market share against an ever-expanding number of competitors including many new and non-traditional competitors, (iii) enhance our products and services offerings by adding innovative features or disruptive technologies that differentiate them from those of our competitors and prevent commoditization, (iv) develop, manufacture and bring compelling new products and services to market quickly and cost-effectively, and (v) attract, develop and retain individuals with the requisite technical expertise and understanding of customers’ needs to develop new technologies and introduce new products and services.
We may not be successful in maintaining our competitive position. Our competitors or third parties from outside of our industry may develop disruptive technologies or products and services that are superior to ours, may develop more efficient or effective methods of providing products and services or may adapt more quickly than we do to new or disruptive technologies or evolving customer requirements. The failure of our technologies, products or services to maintain and gain market acceptance due to more attractive offerings could significantly reduce our revenues or market share and adversely affect our competitive standing and prospects. Pricing pressures also could cause us to adjust the prices of certain products to stay competitive, which could adversely affect our market share and financial performance. Failure to continue competing successfully or to win large contracts could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Our results of operations and financial condition may be adversely affected by global economic and financial market conditions.
We compete around the world in various geographic and product markets. In 2018, 47%, 25% and 20% of our total revenue was from customers located in the United States, western Europe and emerging markets, respectively. We expect revenue from these markets to be significant for the foreseeable future. Important factors impacting our businesses include the overall strength of these economies and our customers’ confidence in both local and global macro-economic conditions; industrial and private sector spending, federal, state, local and municipal governmental fiscal and trade policies; the strength of the residential and commercial real estate markets; interest rates; availability of commercial financing for our customers and end-users; the availability of funding for our public sector customers; and unemployment rates. A slowdown or prolonged downturn in our markets could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Economic and other risks associated with international sales and operations could adversely affect our business.
In 2018, 53% of our total revenue was from customers outside the United States, with 20% of total revenue generated in emerging markets. We expect our sales from international operations and export sales to continue to be a significant portion of our revenue. We have placed a particular emphasis on increasing our growth and presence in emerging markets. Many of our manufacturing operations, employees and suppliers are located

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outside of the United States. Both our international operations and sales are subject, in varying degrees, to risks inherent in doing business outside the United States. These risks include the following:
changes in trade protection measures, including embargoes, tariffs and other trade barriers, and import and export regulations and licensing requirements;
instability and uncertainties arising from the global geopolitical environment, such as economic nationalism, populism, protectionism and anti-global sentiment;
changes in tax laws and potential negative consequences from the interpretation, application and enforcement by governmental tax authorities of tax laws and policies;
unanticipated changes in other laws and regulations or in how such provisions are interpreted or administered;
potential disruptions in our global supply chain;
possibility of unfavorable circumstances arising from host country laws or regulations, including those related to infrastructure and data transmission, security and privacy;
currency exchange rate fluctuations and restrictions on currency repatriation; 
disruption of operations from labor and political disturbances;
regional safety and security considerations;
increased costs and risks in developing, staffing and simultaneously managing a number of global operations as a result of distance as well as language and cultural differences; and
outbreak or escalation of insurrection, armed conflict, terrorism or war.
Changes in the geopolitical or economic environments in the countries in which we operate could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows. For example, changes in U.S. policy regarding international trade, including import and export regulation and international trade agreements, could also negatively impact our business. In 2018, the U.S. imposed tariffs on certain goods imported from China and certain other countries, which has resulted in retaliatory tariffs by China and other countries. Additional tariffs imposed by the U.S. on a broader range of imports, or further retaliatory trade measures taken by China or other countries in response, could result in an increase in supply chain costs that we may not be able to offset or may otherwise adversely impact our financial condition and results of operations.

Additionally, we continue to monitor Brexit and its potential impacts on our results of operations and financial condition. Volatility in foreign currencies is expected to continue as the United Kingdom executes its exit from the European Union. If the United Kingdom's membership in the European Union terminates without an agreement (referred to as a “hard Brexit”), there could be increased costs from re-imposition of tariffs on trade between the United Kingdom and European Union, increased transportation costs, shipping delays because of the need for customs inspections and procedures and shortages of certain goods. The United Kingdom will also need to negotiate its own tax and trade treaties with countries all over the world, which could take years to complete. In the case of a “hard Brexit”, our exposure to disruptions to our supply chain, increased costs, the imposition of tariffs and currency devaluation in the United Kingdom could result in a material impact to our consolidated revenue, earnings and cash flow.

Further, any payment of distributions, loans or advances to us by our foreign subsidiaries could be subject to restrictions on, or taxation of, dividends on repatriation of earnings under applicable local law, monetary transfer restrictions and foreign currency exchange regulations in the jurisdictions in which our subsidiaries operate. In addition to the general risks that we face outside the United States, our operations in emerging markets could involve additional uncertainties for us, including risks that governments may impose withholding or other taxes on remittances and other payments to us, or the amount of any such taxes may increase; governments may seek to nationalize our assets; or governments may impose or increase investment barriers or other restrictions affecting our business. In addition, emerging markets pose other uncertainties, including the difficulty of enforcing agreements, challenges collecting receivables, protection of our intellectual property and other assets, pressure on the pricing of our products and services, higher business conduct risks, ability to hire and retain qualified talent and risks of political instability. We cannot predict the impact such events might have on our business, financial condition and results of operations.


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Our business could be adversely affected by cyber threats or other interruptions in information technology, communications networks and operations.

Our business operations rely on information technology and communications networks, including those operated by third parties, to process, transmit and store our electronic information or our customers’ electronic information, and manage or support a variety of business processes or activities. Regardless of protection measures, essentially all systems are susceptible to disruption due to cybersecurity attacks including denial-of-service, computer viruses and security breaches, insider risk, equipment or system failure, vandalism, natural disasters, power outages, shutdown, telecommunication or utility failure and other events. In addition, we have designed products and services that connect to and are part of the “Internet of Things.” While we attempt to provide adequate security measures to safeguard our products from cyber threats, the potential for an attack remains. A successful attack may result in inappropriate access to our or our customers' information or an inability for our products and services to function properly.

We, and some of our third party vendors, have experienced cybersecurity attacks in the past and may experience them in the future, likely with more frequency and involving a broader range of devices. To date, none have resulted in any material adverse impact to our business or operations. We have adopted measures designed to mitigate potential risks associated with information technology disruptions and cybersecurity threats, however, given the unpredictability of the timing, nature and scope of such disruptions, we could potentially be subject to production downtimes, operational delays, other detrimental impacts on our operations or ability to provide products and services to our customers, the compromise of confidential or otherwise protected information, destruction or corruption of data, security breaches, other manipulation or improper use of our systems or networks, financial losses from remedial actions, loss of business, liability to others, regulatory enforcement actions, and/or damage to our reputation.  We also have or operate through a concentration of operations on certain sites, such as production and shared services centers, where business interruptions could cause material damage and costs. Transport of goods from suppliers and to customers could also be hampered for the reasons stated above. Disruption to any of the information technology and communications networks on which we rely, or an attack on our IoT products and services, could interfere with our operations, disrupt service to our customers, interrupt production and shipments, damage customer relationships and negatively impact our reputation, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, results of operations, cash flows or financial condition.

Although we continue to assess these risks, implement controls and perform business continuity and disaster recovery planning, we cannot be sure that interruptions with material adverse effects will not occur.

A material disruption to any of our facilities or operations, or that of third parties upon which we rely, may adversely affect our business.

If our facilities or operations, or that of third parties upon which we rely in our supply chain and critical business operations, were to be disrupted as a result of a significant equipment or system failure, natural disaster, power, water or communications outage, fire, explosion, critical supply failure, terrorism, cyber-based attack, political disruption, labor dispute, work stoppage or slowdown, adverse weather conditions or other reason, our financial performance could be adversely affected. Interruptions could cause an inability to meet customer demand, increase our costs, reduce our sales, and impact our business processes and activities. We also have or operate through a concentration of operations on certain sites, such as production and shared services centers, where business interruptions could cause material damage and costs. Any interruption in capability may be lengthy and have lasting effects, require a significant amount of management and other employees' time and focus, and require us to make substantial expenditures to remedy the situation, which could negatively affect our profitability and financial condition. Any recovery under our insurance policies may not offset the lost sales or increased costs that may be experienced during the disruption of operations, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We may not achieve some or all of the expected benefits of our restructuring and transformation plans and our restructuring may adversely affect our business.

In recent fiscal years, we have initiated restructuring, realignment and transformation plans in an effort to optimize our cost structure and improve our operational efficiency and effectiveness. In 2017, we undertook steps to advance a multi-year effort to transform many of our support functions and related technologies, including Finance, Human Resources and Procurement. We may not be able to obtain the cost savings and benefits that were initially anticipated in connection with our restructuring and transformation plans. Implementing planned restructuring

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activities could be delayed resulting in delayed realization of the operational and financial benefits from such actions. Additionally, as a result of these plans, we may experience a loss of continuity, loss of accumulated knowledge or inefficiency during transitional periods. Transformation, realignment and restructuring can require a significant amount of management and other employees' time and focus, which may divert attention from operating and growing our business.

The successful implementation and execution of our restructuring, realignment and transformation actions are critical to achieving our expected cost savings as well as effectively competing in the marketplace and positioning us for future growth. Factors that may impede a successful implementation include the retention of key employees, the impact of regulatory matters including tax, matters involving certain third party service providers selected to assist us including their compliance with the Company's internal controls over financial reporting, and adverse economic market conditions. If our restructuring actions are not executed successfully, it could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our strategy includes acquisitions, and we may not be able to execute acquisitions of suitable candidates or integrate acquisitions successfully.
As part of our growth strategy, we plan to pursue the acquisition of other companies, assets, technologies and product lines that either complement or expand our existing business. We may not be able to identify suitable candidates, negotiate appropriate acquisition terms, obtain financing that may be needed to consummate acquisitions, complete proposed acquisitions, successfully integrate acquired businesses into our existing operations or expand into new markets. In addition, we cannot make assurances that any acquisition, once integrated, will perform as planned, be accretive to earnings, or prove to be beneficial to our operations or cash flow.
Acquisitions involve a number of risks and present financial, managerial and operational challenges, including: diversion of management attention from existing businesses and operations; integration of technology, operations personnel, and financial and other systems; potentially insufficient cybersecurity controls or insufficient internal controls over financial or compliance activities or financial reporting at an acquired entity that could impact us on a combined basis; the failure to realize expected synergies; the possibility that we become exposed to substantial undisclosed liabilities or new material risks associated with the acquired businesses; and the loss of key employees of the acquired businesses. Failure to successfully execute our acquisition strategy could adversely affect our competitive position, business, financial condition or results of operations.
Failure to comply with laws, regulations and policies, including but not limited to the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act or other applicable anti-corruption legislation and data privacy and security laws, could result in fines, criminal penalties and an adverse effect on our business.
We are subject to regulation under a wide variety of U.S. federal and state and non-U.S. laws, regulations and policies, including laws related to anti-corruption, trade regulations, including export and import compliance, anti-trust and money laundering, due to our global operations. The U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (the "FCPA"), the U.K. Bribery Act of 2010 and similar anti-bribery laws in other jurisdictions generally prohibit companies and their intermediaries from making improper payments to government officials or other persons for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business. Our policies mandate compliance with these anti-bribery laws. We operate in many parts of the world that are recognized as having governmental and commercial corruption and in certain circumstances, strict compliance with anti-bribery laws may conflict with local customs and practices. We cannot assure you that our internal control policies and procedures will always protect us from improper conduct of our employees or business partners. In the event that we believe or have reason to believe that our employees or business partners have or may have violated applicable laws, regulations or policies, including anti-corruption laws, we may be required to investigate or have outside counsel investigate the relevant facts and circumstances, which can be expensive and require significant time and attention from senior management. Any such violation could result in substantial fines, sanctions, civil and/or criminal penalties, and curtailment of operations in certain jurisdictions, and might materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations or financial condition. In addition, actual or alleged violations could damage our reputation and ability to do business.
Additionally, to conduct our operations, we regularly move data across national borders, and consequently we are subject to a variety of continuously evolving and developing laws and regulations in the United States and abroad regarding privacy, data protection and data security. The scope of the laws that may be applicable to us is often uncertain and may be conflicting, particularly with respect to foreign laws. For example, the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”), which became effective in May 2018, greatly increases the jurisdictional reach of European Union law and adds a broad array of requirements for handling personal data, including the public disclosure of significant data breaches. Other countries, such as China, have enacted or are

14


enacting data localization laws that require data to stay within their borders. All of these evolving compliance and operational requirements impose significant costs of compliance that are likely to increase over time. Any such violation could result in substantial fines, sanctions or civil penalties, damage to our reputation and might materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations or financial condition.
Our business could be adversely affected by significant movements in foreign currency exchange rates.
We conduct approximately 53% of our business in various locations outside the United States. We are exposed to fluctuations in foreign currency transaction exchange rates, particularly with respect to the Euro, Swedish Krona, Polish Zloty, Canadian Dollar, British Pound and Australian Dollar. Any significant change in the value of currencies of the countries in which we do business relative to the value of the U.S. Dollar or Euro could affect our ability to sell products competitively and control our cost structure, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Additionally, we are subject to foreign exchange translation risk due to changes in the value of foreign currencies in relation to our reporting currency, the U.S. dollar. The translation risk is primarily concentrated in the exchange rate between the U.S. Dollar and the Euro, Chinese Yuan, British Pound, Canadian Dollar, Swedish Krona and Australian Dollar. As the U.S. Dollar fluctuates against other currencies in which we transact business, revenue and income can be impacted. For instance, our 2018 revenue increased by 0.5% due to favorable foreign currency impacts. Strengthening of the U.S. Dollar relative to the Euro and the currencies of the other countries in which we do business, could materially and adversely affect our sales growth in future periods. Refer to Item 7A "Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk" for additional information on foreign exchange risk.
Failure to retain our existing senior management, engineering, technology, sales and other key personnel or the inability to attract and retain new qualified personnel could negatively impact our ability to operate or grow our business.
Our success will continue to depend to a significant extent on our ability to retain or attract a significant number of employees in senior management, engineering, technology, sales and other key personnel. The ability to attract or retain employees will depend on our ability to offer competitive compensation, benefits, training and development and an attractive culture. We will need to continue to develop a roster of qualified talent to support business growth and replace departing employees. Effective succession planning is also important to our long-term success. Failure to ensure effective transfer of knowledge and smooth transitions involving key employees could hinder our strategic planning and execution. A failure to retain or attract highly skilled personnel could adversely affect our operating results or ability to operate or grow our business.
Product defects and unanticipated use or inadequate disclosure with respect to our products could adversely affect our business, reputation and financial statements.
Manufacturing or design defects in (including in products or components that we source from third parties), unanticipated use of, or inadequate disclosure of risks relating to the use of our products could create product safety, regulatory or environmental risks, including personal injury, death or property damage. These events could lead to recalls or safety alerts relating to our products, result in the removal of a product from the market and result in product liability claims being brought against us. Although we have liability insurance, we cannot be certain that this insurance coverage will continue to be available to us at a reasonable cost or will be adequate to cover any product liability claims. Manufacturing, design, software or service defects or inadequacies may also result in contractual damages or credits being issued, which could impact our profitability. Recalls, removals and product liability and quality claims can result in significant costs, as well as negative publicity and damage to our reputation that could reduce demand for our products and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our financial results can be difficult to predict.
Our business is impacted by a substantial amount of short cycle, and book-and-bill business, which we have limited insight into, particularly for the business that we transact through our distributors. We are also impacted by large projects, whose timing can change based upon customer requirements due to a number of factors affecting the project beyond our knowledge or control, such as funding, readiness of the project and regulatory approvals. Accordingly, our financial results for any given period can be difficult to predict.

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Changes in our effective tax rates and tax expenses may adversely affect our financial results.
We sell our products in approximately 150 countries and 53% of our revenue was generated outside the United States in 2018. Given the global nature of our business, a number of factors may increase our effective tax rates and tax expense, including:
the geographic mix of jurisdictions in which profits are earned and taxed;
the statutory tax rates and tax laws in the jurisdictions in which we conduct business;
the resolution of tax issues arising from tax examinations by various tax authorities; and
the valuation of our deferred tax assets and liabilities.
Xylem is regularly examined by various tax authorities throughout the world and the resolutions of these examinations do not typically have a significant impact on our effective tax rates and tax expenses but they could. Additionally, in December 2017, the United States enacted tax reform legislation (“Tax Act”). The legislation implements many new U.S. domestic and international tax provisions. Many aspects of the Tax Act remain unclear, and although additional clarifying guidance is expected to be issued (by the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”), the U.S. Treasury Department or via a technical correction law change), it may not be clarified for some time. In addition, many U.S. states have not yet updated their laws to take into account the new federal legislation. As a result, there may be further impacts of the new law on our results of operations and financial condition. It is possible that the Tax Act, or interpretations under it, could change and could have an adverse effect on us, and such effect could be material.
Our business could be adversely affected by inflation, tariffs and other manufacturing and operating cost increases.
Our operating costs are subject to fluctuations, particularly due to changes in prices for commodities, parts, raw materials, energy and related utilities, freight, and cost of labor which may be driven by prevailing price levels, exchange rates, changes in trade protection measures including tariffs, and other economic factors. In order to remain competitive, we may not be able to recuperate all or a portion of these higher costs from our customers through product price increases. Further, in a declining price environment, our operating margins may contract because we account for inventory using the first-in, first- out method. Actions we take to mitigate volatility in manufacturing and operating costs may not be successful and, as a result, our business, financial condition and results of operation could be materially and adversely affected.
Our business could be adversely affected by the availability of parts and raw materials or the inability of suppliers to meet delivery requirements.
Our business relies on third-party suppliers, contract manufacturing and commodity markets to secure raw materials, parts and components used in our products, and we expect that reliance to increase. Parts and raw materials commonly used in our products include motors, fabricated parts, castings, bearings, seals, batteries, PCBs and electronic components, as well as steel, brass, nickel, copper, aluminum and plastics. We are exposed to the availability of these materials, which may be subject to curtailment or change due to, among other things, interruptions in production by suppliers, labor disputes, the impaired financial condition of a particular supplier, suppliers’ allocations to other purchasers, changes in trade protection measures including tariffs, exchange rates and prevailing price levels, ability to meet regulatory requirements, weather emergencies or acts of war or terrorism. Any delay in our suppliers’ abilities to provide us with necessary materials could impair our ability to deliver products to our customers and, accordingly, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Our indebtedness may affect our business and may restrict our operational flexibility.
As of December 31, 2018, our total outstanding indebtedness was $2,308 million as described under “Liquidity and Capital Resources." Our indebtedness could:
increase our vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions;
limit our ability to obtain additional financing or borrow additional funds;
create uncertainty and complexity in managing debt that uses LIBOR as a reference rate, including as a result of the planned transition away from LIBOR to the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”);
limit our ability to pay future dividends;
limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and the industry in which we operate;
require that a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations be used for the payment of interest on our

16


indebtedness instead of funding working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions or other general corporate purposes; and
increase the amount of interest expense that we must pay because some of our borrowings are at variable interest rates, which, as interest rates increase, would result in higher interest expense.
In addition, there can be no assurance that future borrowings or equity financing will be available to us on favorable terms or at all for the payment or refinancing of our indebtedness. If we incur additional debt or raise equity through the issuance of preferred stock, the terms of the debt or preferred stock issued may give the holders rights, preferences and privileges senior to those of holders of our common stock, particularly in the event of liquidation. The terms of the debt may also impose additional and more stringent restrictions on our operations than we currently have.
Our ability to make scheduled principal payments of, to pay interest on, or to refinance our indebtedness and to satisfy our other debt obligations will depend on our future operating performance, which may be affected by factors beyond our control. If we are unable to service our indebtedness, our business, financial condition and results of operations would be materially adversely affected.
We may be negatively impacted by legal and regulatory proceedings.
We are subject to various laws, ordinances, regulations and other requirements of government authorities in foreign countries and in the United States, any violation of which could potentially create substantial liability for us and damage our reputation. Changes in laws, ordinances, regulations or other government policies, the nature, timing, and effect of which are uncertain, may significantly increase our expenses and liabilities.

From time to time we are involved in legal and regulatory proceedings that are incidental to the operation of our businesses (or the business operations of previously owned entities). These proceedings may seek remedies relating to environmental matters, tax, intellectual property, acquisitions or divestitures, product liability and personal injury claims, privacy, employment, labor and pension matters, government contract issues and commercial or contractual disputes. Our continuing transition to connected or digital technologies and solutions has increased our exposure to intellectual property litigation and we expect that this risk will continue to increase as we execute on our innovation and technology priorities.

It is not possible to predict with certainty the outcome of claims, investigations, regulatory proceedings and lawsuits, and we could in the future incur judgments, fines or penalties or enter into settlements and claims that could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition in any particular period.  Additionally, we may be required to change or cease operations at one or more facilities if a regulatory agency determines that we have failed to comply with laws, regulations or orders applicable to our business.

The global and diverse nature of our operations, coupled with the increase in regulation and enforcement in many regions of the globe, means that legal and compliance risks will continue to exist and additional legal and regulatory proceedings and other contingencies, the outcome of which cannot be predicted with certainty, will arise from time to time. In addition, subsequent developments in legal and regulatory proceedings may affect our assessments and estimates of loss contingencies recorded as a reserve and require us to make payments in excess of our reserves, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
Weather conditions and climate changes may adversely affect, or cause volatility in, our financial results.
Weather conditions, including heavy flooding, droughts and fluctuations in temperatures or weather patterns, including as a result of climate change, can positively or negatively impact portions of our business. Within the dewatering space, pumps provided through our Godwin and Flygt brands are used to remove excess or unwanted water. Heavy flooding due to weather conditions drives increased demand for these applications. On the other hand, drought conditions drive higher demand for pumps used in agricultural and turf irrigation applications, such as those provided by our Goulds Water Technology and Lowara brands. Fluctuations to warmer and cooler temperatures result in varying levels of demand for products used in residential and commercial applications where homes and buildings are heated and cooled with HVAC units such as those provided by our B&G brand. The unpredictable nature of weather conditions and climate change may result in volatility for certain portions of our business, as well as the operations of certain of our customers and suppliers.

17


If we do not or cannot adequately protect our intellectual property, if third parties infringe our intellectual property rights, or if third parties claim that we are infringing or misappropriating their intellectual property rights, we may suffer competitive injury, expend significant resources enforcing our rights or defending against such claims, or be prevented from selling products or services.
We own numerous patents, trademarks, copyrights, trade secrets and other intellectual property and licenses to intellectual property owned by others, which in the aggregate are important to our business. The intellectual property rights that we obtain, however, may not provide us with a significant competitive advantage because they may not be sufficiently broad or may be challenged, invalidated, circumvented, independently developed, or designed-around, particularly in countries where intellectual property rights laws are not highly developed, protected or enforced. Our failure to obtain or maintain intellectual property rights that convey competitive advantage, adequately protect our intellectual property or detect or prevent circumvention or unauthorized use of such property and the cost of enforcing our intellectual property rights could adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
From time to time, we receive notices from third parties alleging intellectual property infringement or misappropriation. Any dispute or litigation regarding intellectual property could be costly and time-consuming due to the complexity and the uncertainty of intellectual property litigation. Our intellectual property portfolio may not be useful in asserting a counterclaim, or negotiating a license, in response to a claim of infringement or misappropriation. In addition, as a result of such claims of infringement or misappropriation, we could lose our rights to critical technology, be unable to license critical technology or sell critical products and services, be required to pay substantial damages or license fees with respect to the infringed rights or be required to redesign our products at substantial cost, any of which could adversely impact our competitive position, financial condition and results of operations. Even if we successfully defend against claims of infringement or misappropriation, we may incur significant costs and diversion of management attention and resources, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
A significant portion of our products and offerings in our Measurement & Control Solutions segment are affected by the availability and regulation of radio spectrum and could be affected by interference with the radio spectrum that we use.
A significant portion of the offering in our Measurement & Control Solutions segment use radio spectrum, which is subject to government regulation.  To the extent we introduce new products designed for use in the United States or another country into a new market, such products may require significant modification or redesign in order to meet frequency requirements and other regulatory specifications.  In some countries, limitations on frequency availability or the cost of making necessary modifications may preclude us from selling our products in those countries. The regulations that govern our use of the radio spectrum may change and the changes may require us to modify our products or seek new partnerships, either directly or due to interference caused by new consumer products allowed under the regulations.  The inability to modify our products to meet such requirements, the possible delays in completing such modifications, and the cost of such modifications all could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.  In addition, suitable partners for co-development may not be able to be secured by us.
In the United States, our products are primarily designed to use licensed spectrum in the 900MHz range.  If the Federal Communications Commission (“FCC”) did not renew our existing spectrum licenses, our business could be adversely affected.  In addition, there may be insufficient available frequencies in some markets to sustain or develop our planned operations at a commercially feasible price or at all.
Outside of the United States, certain of our products require the use of radio frequency and are subject to regulations. In some jurisdictions, radio station licenses may be granted for a fixed term and must be periodically renewed. Our advanced and smart metering systems offering transmits to (and receives information from, if applicable) handheld, mobile, or fixed network reading devices in licensed bands made available to us through strategic partnerships and are reliant to some extent on the licensed spectrum continuing to be available through our partners or our customers. We may be unable to find partners or customers that have access to sufficient frequencies in some markets to sustain or develop our planned operations or to find partners or customers that have access to sufficient frequencies in the relevant markets at a commercially feasible price or at all.
We may incur impairment charges for our goodwill and other indefinite-lived intangible assets which would negatively impact our operating results.
We have a significant amount of goodwill and purchased intangible assets on our balance sheet as a result of acquisitions we have completed. As of December 31, 2018, the net carrying value of our goodwill and other indefinite-lived intangible assets totaled approximately $3 billion. The carrying value of goodwill represents the fair

18


value of an acquired business in excess of identifiable assets and liabilities as of the acquisition date. The carrying value of indefinite-lived intangible assets represents the fair value of trademarks, trade names and FCC licenses as of the acquisition date. We do not amortize goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets that we expect to contribute indefinitely to our cash flows, but instead we evaluate these assets for impairment at least annually, or more frequently if interim indicators suggest that a potential impairment could exist. A goodwill impairment charge will be recognized if the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. Significant negative industry or economic trends, disruptions to our business, inability to effectively integrate acquired businesses, unexpected significant changes or planned changes in use of the assets, failure of the FCC to renew licenses, divestitures and market capitalization declines may impair our goodwill and other indefinite-lived intangible assets. Any charges relating to such impairments could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
We cannot make assurances that we will pay dividends on our common stock or continue to repurchase our common stock under Board approved share repurchase plans, and likewise our indebtedness could limit our ability to pay dividends or make share repurchases.
The timing, declaration, amount and payment of future dividends to our shareholders fall within the discretion of our Board of Directors and will depend on many factors, including our financial condition, results of operations and capital requirements, as well as applicable law, regulatory constraints, industry practice and other business considerations that our Board of Directors considers relevant. There can be no assurance that we will pay a dividend in the future or continue to pay dividends.
Further, the timing and amount of the repurchase of our common stock under Board approved share repurchase plans has similar dependencies as the payment of dividends and accordingly, there can be no assurances that we will repurchase our common stock.
Additionally, if we cannot generate sufficient cash flow from operations to meet our debt payment obligations, then our ability to pay dividends, if so determined by the Board of Directors, or make share repurchases will be impaired and we may be required to attempt to restructure or refinance our debt, raise additional capital or take other actions such as selling assets, reducing or delaying capital expenditures, reducing our dividend or delaying or curtailing share repurchases. There can be no assurance, however, that any such actions could be effected on satisfactory terms, if at all, or would be permitted by the terms of our debt or our other credit and contractual arrangements.
Developments in environmental laws and regulations could impact our financial condition or results of operations.
Our operations, product and service offerings are subject to and affected by many federal, state, local and foreign environmental laws and regulations. In addition, we could be affected by future environmental laws or regulations, including, for example, those imposed in response to climate change concerns. Compliance with current and future environmental laws and regulations currently requires and is expected to continue to require operating and capital expenditures.
Environmental laws and regulations may authorize substantial fines and criminal sanctions as well as facility shutdowns to address violations, and may require the installation of costly pollution control equipment or operational changes to limit emissions or discharges. We also incur, and expect to continue to incur, costs to comply with current environmental laws and regulations.
Developments such as the adoption of new environmental laws and regulations, stricter enforcement of existing laws and regulations, violations by us of such laws and regulations, discovery of previously unknown or more extensive contamination, litigation involving environmental impacts, our inability to recover costs associated with any such developments, or financial insolvency of other responsible parties could in the future have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
The level of returns on postretirement benefit plan assets, changes in interest rates and other factors could affect our earnings and cash flows in future periods.
Certain members of our current and retired employee population are covered by pension and other employee-related defined benefit plans (collectively, postretirement benefit plans). We may experience significant fluctuations in costs related to our postretirement benefit plans as a result of macro-economic factors, such as interest rates, that are beyond our control. The cost of our postretirement plans is incurred over long periods of time and involves factors and uncertainties during those periods which can be volatile and unpredictable, including rates of return on postretirement benefit plan assets, discount rates used to calculate liabilities and expenses and rates of future compensation increases. Management develops each assumption using relevant plan and Company experience and expectations in conjunction with market-related data. Our liquidity, financial position (including shareholders’

19


equity) and results of operations could be materially affected by significant changes in key economic indicators, actuarial experience, financial market volatility, future legislation and other governmental regulatory actions.
We make contributions to fund our postretirement benefit plans when considered necessary or advantageous to do so. The macro-economic factors discussed above, including the return on postretirement benefit plan assets and the minimum funding requirements established by local government funding or taxing authorities, or established by other agreement, may influence future funding requirements. A significant decline in the fair value of our plan assets, or other adverse changes to our overall pension and other employee-related benefit plans, could require us to make significant funding contributions and affect cash flows in future periods.
The market price of our common stock may fluctuate significantly.
We cannot predict the prices at which our common stock may trade. The market price of our common stock may fluctuate widely, depending on many factors, some of which may be beyond our control, including:
actual or anticipated fluctuations in our operating results due to factors related to our business;
success or failure of our business strategy;
our quarterly or annual earnings, or those of other companies in our industry;
our ability to obtain financing as needed;
stock repurchases or dividends;
acquisitions and divestitures;
announcements by us or our competitors of significant new business awards;
announcements by us or our competitors of significant acquisitions or divestitures;
changes in accounting standards, policies, guidance, interpretations or principles;
changes in earnings estimates by securities analysts or our ability to meet those estimates;
our ability to execute transformation, restructuring and realignment actions;
the operating and stock price performance of other comparable companies;
natural or environmental disasters that investors believe may affect us;
overall market fluctuations;
fluctuations in foreign currency impacts;
fluctuations in the budgets of federal, state and local governmental entities around the world;
results from any material litigation, governmental or regulatory body investigation, or tax examination;
changes in laws and regulations affecting our business; 
impact of trade protection measures including tariffs; and
general economic conditions and other external factors.
Stock markets in general have experienced volatility that has often been unrelated to the operating performance of a particular company. These broad market fluctuations could adversely affect the trading price of our common stock.
Anti-takeover provisions in our organizational documents and Indiana law could delay or prevent a change in control.
Certain provisions of our fourth amended and restated articles of incorporation and our amended and restated by-laws may delay or prevent a merger or acquisition of part or all of our business operations. For example, our articles of incorporation and our by-laws, among other things, require advance notice for shareholder proposals and nominations. In addition, our articles of incorporation authorize our Board of Directors to issue one or more series of preferred stock. These provisions may also discourage acquisition proposals of our business operations or delay or prevent a change in control, which could harm our stock price. Indiana law also imposes some restrictions on mergers and other business combinations between any holder of 10% or more of our outstanding common stock and us.

20


In connection with our Spin-off, ITT (now ITT LLC) and Exelis, acquired by Harris Inc., will indemnify us for certain liabilities and we will indemnify ITT (now ITT LLC) or Exelis for certain liabilities. If we are required to indemnify ITT (now ITT LLC) or Exelis, we may need to divert cash to meet those obligations and our financial results could be negatively impacted. In the case of ITT's or Exelis' indemnity, there can be no assurance that those indemnities will be sufficient to insure us against the full amount of such liabilities, or as to ITT's or Exelis' ability to satisfy its indemnification obligations in the future.
Pursuant to the Distribution Agreement and certain other agreements with ITT (now ITT LLC) and Exelis, ITT (now ITT LLC) and Exelis agreed to indemnify us from certain liabilities, and we agreed to indemnify ITT (now ITT LLC) and Exelis for certain liabilities. Indemnities that we may be required to provide ITT (now ITT LLC) and Exelis may be significant and could negatively impact our business. Third parties could also seek to hold us responsible for any of the liabilities that ITT (now ITT LLC) or Exelis has agreed to retain. Further, there can be no assurance that the indemnities from ITT (now ITT LLC) and Exelis will be sufficient to protect us against the full amount of such liabilities, or that ITT (now ITT LLC) and Exelis will be able to fully satisfy their indemnification obligations. Moreover, even if we ultimately were to succeed in recovering from ITT (now ITT LLC) and Exelis any amounts for which we are held liable, we may be temporarily required to bear these losses ourselves. Each of these risks could negatively affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
ITEM 1B.    UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS.
None.

21


ITEM 2.        PROPERTIES
We have approximately 385 locations in more than 52 countries. These properties total approximately 12.3 million square feet, of which more than 345 locations, or approximately 6.6 million square feet, are leased. We consider the offices, plants, warehouses and other properties that we own or lease to be in good condition and generally suitable for the purposes for which they are used. The following table shows our significant locations by segment:
Location
 
State or
Country
 
Principal Business Activity
 
Approx.
Square
Feet
 
Owned or
 Leased
 
 
 
 
Water Infrastructure
 
 
 
 
Emmaboda
 
Sweden
 
Administration and Manufacturing
 
1,197,000

 
Owned
Stockholm
 
Sweden
 
Administration and Research & Development
 
182,000

 
Leased
Bridgeport
 
NJ
 
Administration and Manufacturing
 
136,000

 
Leased
Shenyang
 
China
 
Manufacturing
 
125,000

 
Owned
Yellow Springs
 
OH
 
Administration and Manufacturing
 
112,000

 
Owned
Quenington
 
UK
 
Manufacturing
 
86,000

 
Leased
 
 
 
 
Applied Water
 
 
 
 
Morton Grove
 
IL
 
Administration and Manufacturing
 
530,000

 
Owned
Montecchio
 
Italy
 
Administration and Manufacturing
 
379,000

 
Owned
Nanjing
 
China
 
Manufacturing
 
363,000

 
Owned
Auburn
 
NY
 
Manufacturing
 
273,000

 
Owned
Stockerau
 
Austria
 
Administration
 
233,000

 
Owned
Lubbock
 
TX
 
Manufacturing
 
229,000

 
Owned
Strzelin
 
Poland
 
Manufacturing
 
185,000

 
Owned
Cheektowaga
 
NY
 
Manufacturing
 
147,000

 
Owned
 
 
 
 
Measurement & Control Solutions
 
 
 
 
Ludwigshafen
 
Germany
 
Manufacturing
 
318,000

 
Owned
Texarkana
 
AR
 
Manufacturing
 
254,000

 
Owned
Uniontown
 
PA
 
Manufacturing
 
240,000

 
Leased
DuBois
 
PA
 
Manufacturing
 
197,000

 
Owned
Durham
 
NC
 
Administration and Research & Development
 
154,000

 
Leased
DuBois
 
PA
 
Manufacturing
 
137,000

 
Leased
 
 
 
 
Regional Selling Locations
 
 
 
 
Dubai
 
United Arab Emirates
 
Manufacturing
 
144,000

 
Owned
Nottinghamshire
 
United Kingdom
 
Sales Office
 
139,000

 
Leased
Nanterre
 
France
 
Sales Office
 
139,000

 
Leased
Langenhagen
 
Germany
 
Sales Office
 
134,000

 
Leased
 
 
 
 
Corporate Headquarters
 
 
 
 
Rye Brook
 
NY
 
Administration
 
67,000

 
Leased
ITEM 3.        LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
From time to time we are involved in legal and regulatory proceedings that are incidental to the operation of our businesses (or the business operations of previously owned entities). These proceedings may seek remedies relating to environmental matters, tax, intellectual property matters, acquisitions or divestitures, product liability and personal injury claims, privacy, employment, labor and pension matters, government contract issues and commercial or contractual disputes. See Note 19, "Commitments and Contingencies", of the consolidated financial statements included in Item 8 of Part II of this 10-K for information regarding certain legal and regulatory proceedings we are involved in.

22


ITEM 4.        MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.
EXECUTIVE OFFICERS OF THE REGISTRANT
The following information is provided regarding the executive officers of Xylem as of January 31, 2019:
NAME
 
AGE
 
CURRENT TITLE
 
OTHER BUSINESS EXPERIENCE DURING PAST 5 YEARS
Patrick K. Decker
 
54
 
President and Chief Executive Officer (2014)
 
• President and Chief Executive Officer, Harsco Corp. (diversified, worldwide industrial company) (2012)

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
E. Mark Rajkowski
 
60
 
Senior VP and Chief Financial Officer (2016)
 
• Senior VP and Chief Financial Officer, MeadWestvaco Corp. (worldwide packaging company) (2004)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tomas Brannemo
 
47
 
Senior VP and President, Transport and Treatment (2017)
 
• Senior VP and President, Transport (2014)
• VP, Transport (2013)


 
 
 
 
 
 
 
David Flinton
 
48
 
Senior VP and President, Dewatering (2015)
 
• VP, Engineering and Marketing, Applied Water Systems (2013)

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Pak Steven Leung
 
62
 
Senior VP and President, Emerging Markets (2015)

 
VP, Global Sales, Valves and Controls, Pentair Plc (diversified, worldwide industrial manufacturing company) (2013)

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Kenneth Napolitano
 
56
 
Senior VP and President, Applied Water Systems and Americas Commercial Team (2017)
 
• Senior VP and President, Applied Water Systems (2012)



 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Colin R. Sabol
 
51
 
Senior VP and President, Measurement & Control Solutions (2017)
 
• Senior VP and President, Analytics and Treatment (2015)
• Senior VP and President, Dewatering (2013)


 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Paul A. Stellato
 
44
 
VP, Controller and Chief Accounting Officer (2017)
 
• VP, Financial Planning and Analysis (2014)
• Director, Financial Planning and Analysis (2011)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Kairus Tarapore
 
57
 
Senior VP and Chief Human Resources Officer (2015)
 
• Senior VP and Chief Administrative Officer, Babcock & Wilcox Company (energy and environmental technologies and services) (2013)

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Claudia S. Toussaint
 
55
 
Senior VP, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary (2014)
 
• Senior VP, General Counsel and Secretary, Barnes Group Inc. (international industrial and aerospace manufacturing) (2012)


Note: Date in parentheses indicates the year in which the position was assumed.

23


BOARD OF DIRECTORS
The following information is provided regarding the Board of Directors of Xylem as of January 31, 2019:
NAME
 
TITLE
Markos I. Tambakeras
 
Chairman, Xylem Inc., Former Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer, Kennametal, Inc.
 
 
 
Curtis J. Crawford, Ph.D.
 
President and Chief Executive Officer, XCEO, Inc.
 
 
 
Jeanne Beliveau-Dunn
 
Former Vice President and General Manager, Cisco Systems, Inc.
 
 
 
Patrick K. Decker
 
President and Chief Executive Officer, Xylem Inc.
 
 
 
Robert F. Friel
 
Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer, PerkinElmer, Inc.
 
 
 
Victoria D. Harker
 
Chief Financial Officer, TEGNA, Inc.
 
 
 
Sten E. Jakobsson
 
Former President and Chief Executive Officer, ABB AB
 
 
 
Steven R. Loranger
 
Former Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer, ITT Corporation
 
 
 
Surya N. Mohapatra, Ph.D.
 
Former Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer, Quest Diagnostics Incorporated
 
 
 
Jerome A. Peribere
 
Former President and Chief Executive Officer, Sealed Air Corporation


24


PART II
ITEM 5.        MARKET FOR THE REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Market Price and Dividends
Our common stock trades publicly on the New York Stock Exchange under the trading symbol “XYL”. As of January 31, 2019, there were 10,898 holders of record of our common stock.
Dividends are declared and paid on the common stock at the discretion of our Board of Directors and depend on our profitability, financial condition, capital needs, future prospects and other factors deemed relevant by our Board. Therefore, there can be no assurance as to what level of dividends, if any, will be paid in the future. In the first quarter of 2019, we declared a dividend of $0.24 per share to be paid on March 14, 2019 for shareholders of record on February 14, 2019.
There were no unregistered offerings of our common stock during 2018.
Fourth Quarter 2018 Share Repurchase Activity
The following table summarizes our purchases of our common stock for the quarter ended December 31, 2018:
(in millions, except per share amounts)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Period
 
Total Number of Shares Purchased
 
Average Price Paid per Share (a)
 
Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or Programs (b)
 
Approximate Dollar Value of Shares That May Yet Be Purchased Under the Plans or Programs (b)
10/1/18 - 10/31/18
 
 
 
 
$363
11/1/18 - 11/30/18
 
 
 
 
$363
12/1/18 - 12/31/18
 
 
 
 
$363
(a)
Average price paid per share is calculated on a settlement basis.
(b)
On August 24, 2015, our Board of Directors authorized the repurchase of up to $500 million in shares with no expiration date. The program's objective is to deploy our capital in a manner that benefits our shareholders and maintains our focus on growth. There were no shares repurchased under this program during the three months ended December 31, 2018. There are up to $363 million in shares that may still be purchased under this plan as of December 31, 2018.



25


PERFORMANCE GRAPH
CUMULATIVE TOTAL RETURN
The following graph compares the relative performance of our common stock, the S&P 500 Index and the S&P 500 Industrials Index. This graph covers the period from December 31, 2013 through December 31, 2018 and assumes that $100 was invested on December 31, 2013 in our common stock, the S&P 500 and the S&P 500 Industrials with the reinvestment of any dividends.

graph2018.jpg

 
XYL
 
S&P 500
 
S&P 500
Industrials
Index
December 31, 2013
100

 
100

 
100

December 31, 2014
112

 
114

 
110

December 31, 2015
109

 
115

 
107

December 31, 2016
150

 
129

 
127

December 31, 2017
209

 
157

 
153

December 31, 2018
206

 
150

 
132

The graph is not, and is not intended to be, indicative of future performance of our common stock.
This performance graph shall not be deemed “filed” with the SEC or subject to the liabilities of Section 18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, and should not be deemed incorporated by reference into any of our prior or subsequent filings under the Securities Act of 1933 or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, except as shall be expressly set forth by specific reference in such filing.

26


ITEM 6.        SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
The following table sets forth selected consolidated financial data for the five years ended December 31, 2018. This selected consolidated financial data should be read in conjunction with “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto included in this Report.
 
Year Ended
December 31,
(in millions, except per share data)
2018 (a)
 
2017 (b) (c)
 
2016 (b) (c)
 
2015 (c)
 
2014 (c)
Results of Operations Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenue
$
5,207

 
$
4,707

 
$
3,771

 
$
3,653

 
$
3,916

Gross profit
2,026

 
1,847

 
1,462

 
1,407

 
1,517

Gross margin
38.9
%
 
39.2
%
 
38.8
%
 
38.5
%
 
38.7
%
Operating income
654

 
552

 
408

 
454

 
469

Operating margin
12.6
%
 
11.7
%
 
10.8
%
 
12.4
%
 
12.0
%
Net income attributable to Xylem
549

 
331

 
260

 
340

 
337

Per Share Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Earnings per share:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
$
3.05

 
$
1.84

 
$
1.45

 
$
1.88

 
$
1.84

Diluted
3.03

 
1.83

 
1.45

 
1.87

 
1.83

Basic shares outstanding
179.8

 
179.6

 
179.1

 
180.9

 
183.1

Diluted shares outstanding
181.1

 
180.9

 
180.0

 
181.7

 
184.2

Cash dividends per share
$
0.8400

 
$
0.7200

 
$
0.6196

 
$
0.5632

 
$
0.5120

Balance Sheet Data (at period end):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
296

 
$
414

 
$
308

 
$
680

 
$
663

Working capital*
988

 
873

 
878

 
810

 
882

Total assets
7,222

 
6,860

 
6,474

 
4,657

 
4,833

Total debt
2,308

 
2,200

 
2,368

 
1,274

 
1,284


*
The Company calculates Working capital as follows: net accounts receivable + inventories - accounts payable - customer advances.
(a)
The amounts for the year ended December 31, 2018 reflects the acquisitions of both Pure and Sensus. Refer to Note 3 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further information regarding acquisitions.
(b)
The amounts for the years ended December 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016 reflect the acquisition of Sensus. Refer to Note 3 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further information regarding acquisitions.
(c)
The amounts for the years ended December 31, 2017, December 31, 2016, December 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014 reflect a re-classification related to prior year pension and post retirement accounting. Refer to Note 2 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further information regarding this prior year re-classification.




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ITEM 7.        MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following discussion should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto. This discussion summarizes the significant factors affecting our results of operations and the financial condition of our business during each of the fiscal years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2018. Except as otherwise indicated or unless the context otherwise requires, “Xylem,” “we,” “us,” “our” and “the Company” refer to Xylem Inc. and its subsidiaries.
Overview
Xylem is a leading global water technology company. We design, manufacture and service highly engineered products and solutions ranging across a wide variety of critical applications in utility, industrial, residential and commercial building services settings. Our broad portfolio of solutions addresses customer needs across the water cycle, from the delivery, measurement and use of drinking water to the collection, test and treatment of wastewater to the return of water to the environment. Our product and service offerings are organized into three reportable segments that are aligned around the critical market applications they provide: Water Infrastructure, Applied Water and Measurement & Control Solutions.
Water Infrastructure serves the water infrastructure sector with pump systems that transport water from aquifers, lakes, rivers and seas; with filtration, ultraviolet and ozone systems that provide treatment, making the water fit to use; and pumping solutions that move the wastewater to treatment facilities where our mixers, biological treatment, monitoring and control systems provide the primary functions in the treatment process. We also provide sales and rental of specialty dewatering pumps and related equipment and services. Additionally, our offerings use monitoring & control, smart and connected technologies to allow for remote monitoring of performance and enable products to self-optimize pump operations maximizing energy efficiency and minimizing unplanned downtime and maintenance for our customers. In the Water Infrastructure segment, we provide the majority of our sales directly to customers along with strong applications expertise, while the remaining amount is through distribution partners.
Applied Water serves the usage applications sector with water pressure boosting systems for heating, ventilation and air conditioning, and for fire protection systems to the residential and commercial building services markets. In addition, our pumps, heat exchangers and controls provide cooling to power plants and manufacturing facilities, circulation for food and beverage processing, as well as boosting systems for agricultural irrigation. In the Applied Water segment, we provide the majority of our sales through long-standing relationships with many of the leading independent distributors in the markets we serve, with the remainder going directly to customers.
Measurement & Control Solutions primarily serves the utility infrastructure solutions and services sector by delivering communications, smart metering, measurement and control technologies and critical infrastructure technologies that allow customers to more effectively use their distribution networks for the delivery, monitoring and control of critical resources such as water, electricity and natural gas. We also provide analytical instrumentation used to measure water quality, flow and level in clean water, wastewater, surface water and coastal environments. Additionally, we offer software and services including cloud-based analytics, remote monitoring and data management, leak detection, condition assessment, asset management and pressure monitoring solutions. We also offer smart lighting solutions that improve efficiency and public safety efforts across communities. In the Measurement & Control Solutions segment, we generate our sales through a combination of long-standing relationships with leading distributors and dedicated channel partners as well as direct sales depending on the regional availability of distribution channels and the type of product.


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Key Performance Indicators and Non-GAAP Measures
Management reviews key performance indicators including revenue, gross margins, segment operating income and margins, orders growth, working capital and backlog, among others. In addition, we consider certain non-GAAP (or "adjusted") measures to be useful to management and investors evaluating our operating performance for the periods presented, and provide a tool for evaluating our ongoing operations, liquidity and management of assets. This information can assist investors in assessing our financial performance and measures our ability to generate capital for deployment among competing strategic alternatives and initiatives, including, but not limited to, dividends, acquisitions, share repurchases and debt repayment. Excluding revenue, Xylem provides guidance only on a non-GAAP basis due to the inherent difficulty in forecasting certain amounts that would be included in GAAP earnings, such as discrete tax items, without unreasonable effort. These adjusted metrics are consistent with how management views our business and are used to make financial, operating and planning decisions. These metrics, however, are not measures of financial performance under GAAP and should not be considered a substitute for revenue, operating income, net income, earnings per share (basic and diluted) or net cash from operating activities as determined in accordance with GAAP. We consider the following non-GAAP measures, which may not be comparable to similarly titled measures reported by other companies, to be key performance indicators:
"organic revenue" and "organic orders" defined as revenue and orders, respectively, excluding the impact of fluctuations in foreign currency translation and contributions from acquisitions and divestitures. Divestitures include sales of insignificant portions of our business that did not meet the criteria for classification as a discontinued operation. The period-over-period change resulting from foreign currency translation impacts is determined by translating current period and prior period activity using the same currency conversion rate.
"constant currency" defined as financial results adjusted for foreign currency translation impacts by translating current period and prior period activity using the same currency conversion rate. This approach is used for countries whose functional currency is not the U.S. dollar.
"adjusted net income" and "adjusted earnings per share" defined as net income and earnings per share, respectively, adjusted to exclude restructuring and realignment costs, Sensus acquisition related costs, special charges, tax-related special items and gains and losses from the sale of businesses, as applicable. A reconciliation of adjusted net income is provided below.
(in millions, except per share data)
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Net income attributable to Xylem
 
$
549

 
$
331

 
$
260

Earnings per share - diluted
 
$
3.03

 
$
1.83

 
$
1.45

Restructuring and realignment, net of tax of $12, $13 and $13, respectively
 
36

 
28

 
34

Sensus acquisition related costs, net of tax of $8 and $15, respectively
 

 
14

 
38

Special charges, net of tax of $1, $4 and $7, respectively
 
12

 
8

 
11

Tax-related special items
 
(75
)
 
40

 
21

Loss (gain) from sale of businesses, net of tax benefit of $2
 

 
12

 

Adjusted net income
 
$
522

 
$
433

 
$
364

Adjusted earnings per share
 
$
2.88

 
$
2.40

 
$
2.03

"adjusted operating expenses" and "adjusted gross profit" defined as operating expenses and gross profit, respectively, adjusted to exclude restructuring and realignment costs, Sensus acquisition related costs and special charges.
"adjusted operating income" defined as operating income, adjusted to exclude "adjusted operating expenses", and "adjusted operating margin" defined as adjusted operating income divided by total revenue.
“realignment costs” defined as costs not included in restructuring costs that are incurred as part of actions taken to reposition our business, including items such as professional fees, severance, relocation, travel, facility set-up and other costs.
"Sensus acquisition related costs" defined as costs incurred by the Company associated with the acquisition of Sensus that are being reported within operating income. These costs include integration costs, acquisition

29


costs, costs related to the recognition of the backlog intangible asset amortization recorded in purchase accounting.
“special charges" defined as costs incurred by the Company, such as acquisition and integration related costs not included in "Sensus acquisition related costs", non-cash impairment charges, due diligence costs and other special non-operating items.
"tax-related special items" defined as tax items, such as tax return versus tax provision adjustments, tax exam impacts, tax law change impacts, significant reserves for cash repatriation, excess tax benefits/losses and other discrete tax adjustments.
"free cash flow" defined as net cash from operating activities less capital expenditures. Free cash flow is further adjusted for other significant items that impact current results which management believes are not related to our ongoing operations and performance. Our definition of free cash flow does not consider certain non-discretionary cash payments, such as debt. The following table provides a reconciliation of free cash flow.
(in millions)
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Net cash provided by operating activities
 
$
586

 
$
686

 
$
497

Capital expenditures
 
(237
)
 
(170
)
 
(124
)
Free cash flow
 
$
349

 
$
516

 
$
373

Cash paid for Sensus acquisition related costs
 
1

 
28

 
13

Free cash flow, excluding Sensus acquisition related costs
 
$
350

 
$
544

 
$
386

“EBITDA” defined as earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization expense and "Adjusted EBITDA" reflects the adjustment to EBITDA to exclude share-based compensation, restructuring and realignment costs, Sensus acquisition related costs, special charges and gain or loss from sale of businesses.
(in millions)
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Net Income
 
$
549

 
$
330

 
$
260

Income tax expense
 
36

 
136

 
80

Interest expense (Income), net
 
78

 
79

 
68

Depreciation
 
117

 
109

 
87

Amortization
 
144

 
125

 
64

EBITDA
 
$
924

 
$
779

 
$
559

Share-based compensation
 
30

 
21

 
18

Restructuring and realignment
 
47

 
41

 
47

Sensus acquisition related costs
 

 
14

 
46

Special charges
 
12

 
13

 
5

Loss (gain) from sale of business
 

 
10

 

Adjusted EBITDA
 
$
1,013

 
$
878

 
$
675


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Executive Summary
Xylem reported revenue of $5,207 million for 2018, an increase of $500 million, or 10.6%, from $4,707 million reported in 2017. On a constant currency basis, revenue increased by $477 million, or 10.1%, primarily consisting of organic revenue growth of $390 million, or 8.3%, driven by growth in all end markets, as well as across all major geographic regions. Acquisition revenue of $111 million also contributed to the increase, partially offset by revenue